Witness Tampering

Trump– the Chief Executive of the United States– discouraged cooperation by witnesses in his own government’s investigations. He used mob-boss language and even floated pardons as inducements.

The public and private witness meddling began in force after the firing of Comey
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When Michael Flynn began cooperating with the investigation, WH Counsel John Dowd left a voicemail pressuring him not to cooperate.
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Trump called Manafort “strong” and didn’t rule out a pardon during his trial. He praised him for not cooperating.
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Trump first told Cohen to “stay strong” and had his WH counsel discuss a pardon with him. Then he called him a “rat” and suggested he’d indict family members.
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Mueller explicitly stated that even public witness tampering is illegal and of great harm to our justice system.
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Discouraging cooperation by witnesses was just one of the ways Trump obstructed justice. See Obstructive Acts for other acts of obstruction.